Eternal Einstein

1Einstein proposed his celebrated special theory of relativity in 1905. At the heart of his theory was a picture that even children can understand. His theory was the culmination of a dreamhe had had since the age of sixteen, when he asked the fateful question: What hapens if you outrace a light beam? As a youth, he knew that Newtonian mechanics described the motion of objects on the Earht and in the heavens, and that Maxwell’s theory described light. These were the two pillars of physics.The essence of Einstein’s genius was that he recognized that these two pillars were in contradiction. One of them must fall.

According to Newton, you could always outrace a light beam, since there was nothing special about the spead of light. This meant that the light beam must remain stationary as you raced alongside. But no one had ever seen a light wave that was totally stationary, that is like a frozen wave. Hance Newton’s theory didn’n make sence. Studying Maxwell’s theory, Einstein found the answer, he discovered something that even Maxwell didn’t know. That the speed of light was a constant, no matter how fast you moved. If you raced toward or away from a light beam, it still traveled at the same velocity, but this trait violets common sence. You can never race alongside a light beam, since it always moves away from you at a constant speed, no matter how fast you move.

In Newton’s theory the passage of time was uniformthrought the universe. One second on Earth was identical to one secon on Mars. Similarly, meter stics placed on the Earth had the same lenght as a meter stics on Mars.

According to Einstein if you were in speeding rocket ship, the passage of time inside the rocket would have to slow down with respect to someone on Earth. Time beats at different rates, depending on how fast you move. Furthermore, the space within that rocket ship would get compressed so that meter sticks could change in lenght, depending on your speed. And the mass of the rocket would increase as well.

Since Einstein derived his famous equation, literally millions of experiments have confirmed his revolutionary ideas.

For example, the GPS system, which can locate your position on the Earth, to within a few feet, would fail unlles one added in corrections due to relativity.

The most graphic illustration of this concept is found in atom smashers, in which scientists accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. At the gigantic CERN accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider, outside Geneva, protons are accelerated to trillions of electron volts and they move very close to the speed of light.

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Why Is the Sun Hot?

imagesThe Sun formed when particles in a cloud of gas coalesced, due to gravitationalattraction, into a massive astronomical object.Before this occurred the particles in the cloud were widely scattered representing a large amount of gravitational potential energy.As the particle fell closer together, their kinetic energy incresed, but the gravitational potential energy of the system decreased, as required by the conservation of energy.With futher slow collapse, the cloud become more dense and the average kinetic1 energy of the particles incresed. This kinetic energy is the internal energy of the cloud, which is proportional to the temperature. If enough particles come together, the temperature can rise to a pointat which nuclear fusion occurs and the ball of gas becomes a star. Otherwise, the temperature may rise, but not enough to ignite fusion reactions, and the object becomes a brown dwarf (a failed star) or a planet

Artificial Gravity

2Astronauts spending lengthy periods of time in space experience a number of negativ effects due to weightlessness, such as weakening of muscle tissue and loss of calcium in bones.These effects may make it very difficult for them to return to their usual environment on Earth.How could artifical gravity be generated in space to overcome such complications?

A rotating cylindrical space station creates an environment of artificial gravity. 1The normal force of the rigid walls provides the centripetal force, which keeps the astronauts moving in a circle. To an astronaut the normal force can’t be easily distinguished from a gravitational force as long as the radius of the station is large compared with the astronaut’s height.

imagesThis same principle is used in certain amusement park rides in which passengers are passed against the inside of rotating cylinder as it tils in various directiones .   3   

The visionary physicist Gerard O’Neill proposed creating a giant space colony a kilometer in radius that rotates slowly, creating Earth normal artificial gravity for the inhabitants in its interior.These inside-out artificial worlds could enable safe transport on a several-thousand- year journey to another star system                                 

 

 

Lever of Human Body

“Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand and I will move the Earth”

 Levers are one of the basic tools that were probably used in prehistoric times. Levers were first described about 260 BC by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes (287-212 BC).A lever is a simple machine that makes work easier for use; it involves moving a load around a pivot using a force. Many of our basic tools use levers, including scissors, pliers, hammer claws, nut crackers and tongs.

 Lever first class , the pivot (fulcrum)  is between the effort (force) and the load.  Lever second class , the load is between the pivot  and the effort (force) and Lever third class , the effort is between the pivot  and the load.

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Levers classified by positions of the forces

classified-levers

Bones, ligaments, and muscles are the structures that form levers in the body to create human movement. In simple terms, a joint (where two or more bones join together) forms the pivot (or fulcrum), and the muscles crossing the joint apply the force to move a weight or resistance.  All three types are found in the body, but most levers in the human body are third class.

First-class levers in the human body are rare. One example is the joint between the head and the first vertebra.The weight (resistance) is the head, the pivot is the joint, and the muscular action (force) come from any of the posterior muscles attaching to the skull, such as the trapezius.

lever1

In the human body, an example of a second-class lever is found in the lower leg when someone stands on tiptoes The axis is formed by the metatarsophalangeal joints, the resistance is the weight of the body, and the force is applied to the calcaneus bone (heel) by the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles through the Achilles tendon.

lever2

There are numerous third-class levers in the human body; one example can be illustrated in the elbow joint The joint is the axis (fulcrum). The resistance (weight) is the forearm, wrist, and hand. The force is the biceps muscle when the elbow is flexed.

lever3

EXAMPLE 1:

The fingers and hand are a class one, two or three lever system depending on the position of the load in the hand.
When the load is concentrated toward the end of the fingers, it is a class three lever system, flexible but weak. This would be similar to a pinch grip, such as holding a pencil. If the load is toward the wrist, and the fingers can curl around it, a power grip can be used. This is a class one or two lever system, stronger but less flexible.

examples

EXAMPLE 2

If you have ever worked in a job that required lifting objects you will have come across signs telling you to lift with your legs, not you back. The reason for such signs is that by bending over from your hips with your back straight, even before you pick up the object,you will put about 4000N (400 kg) of compression on your backbone.

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When you bend over the upper part of your body applies a torque about your hips that tends to turn the body downward (clockwise in the diagram). This torque is about that which would result from your upper body weight, typically 400N (40 kg), applied at a distance of about
300 mm (0.3 m) from your hips. The resulting torque about your hips is therefore about
120 Nm.
This torque must be resisted by something, or your upper body just falls down. That something is, of course, the pull of your major back muscle between your hip and your upper backbone. This force, in turn, puts an equal force of compression on your backbone. These forces, the pull of your back muscle against the push of your backbone, together form a couple of the torque required to balance the torque from the weight of your upper body.

EXAMPLE 3

Another example of torques generating severe forces within the human body is that of supporting an object in your hand when you stretch out your arm. Here there are two major joints about which torques have to be resisted, that of the elbow and that of the shoulder.Because of the greater distance of the force from the shoulder, the torque at the shoulder will be greater than the torque at the elbow. Nature seems to know this by making the shoulder much sturdier than the elbow.4As an example, suppose the distance from a 1 kg ball to your elbow joint was 35 cm and the distance from your elbow joint to your shoulder joint was another 35 cm. The torque that would have to be generated by your forearm muscle would then be about 3.5 Nm but the torque that would have to be provided by your bicep would be 7 Nm.

A little reminder- what is the torque or moment?

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Physics is all around us

How does the study of physics made a milestone for the world? And how does it help me in my daily life? Physics is the science of matter and its motion, space-time and energy. Physics describes many forms of energy – such as kinetic energy, electrical energy, and mass; and the way energy can change from one form to another. Everything surrounding to us is made of matter and Physics explains matter as combinations of fundamental particles which are interacting through fundamental forces. It will not be an exaggeration if it is said that Nature is almost Physics (apart from the fact that the word Physics itself is derived from Greek “physis” meaning nature). Physics is all around us.

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