The meaning of plasma in medicine is quite ordinary, plasma in physics isn’t at all the same, although mistakenly it acquired the exact name. In blood plasma is a liquid, similar to water, in physics plasma is a gas and the fourth state of matter

Brief History of Plasma ;))

With Faraday’s electrical charges that came to pass,
A new glow appeared, different from those in solids, liquids or gas.
Sir William Crookes while observing his own studies,
Of the electrical charges found in these gas bodies,
Suggested this glow so different from the other
Should be known as the fourth state of matter.
This new state of matter could not be understood
Before the following developments and events occurred.
Thomson’s discovery of the electron and its nature,
Bohr’s and Rutherford’s completion of the atom’s structure.
Langmuir’s and Tonks’s continuation of Crookes’s experimentation
Of the gas discharge properties and the new creation.
The name plasma was Langmuir’s own initiation
To describe the electron and ion correlation.
Faraday’s work on solutions and those unanswered queries
Were summarized and brought to light by Debye’s new theories
Of ions in solutions, a theory so profound and outstanding
That enabled the continuance of the plasma understanding.
Plasma motions as a fluid in a magnetic field was Alfven’s addition
And he was awarded the first Nobel Prize in plasma for this contribution. The famous Russian physicist Landau and his sophisticated construction Of his theory of the electron and the plasma interaction
Paved the way for the modern plasma observations,
Through his valuable achievements and revelations….

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In the beginning, there was nothing at all, except for the Universe, compressed in a ball. Then followed the ‘Big Bang’ episode, causing the ball to violently explode. Creating entirely a hot plasma lather, which was actually the first state of matter

plazmaThis morning I’ve sent e-mail my friend and ask him – what’s up? He sent me a picture, – some kind of selfie ;)). Below the picture he wrote: “Confined plasma on the plate ;)”. Plasma on his plate is very stable, but I don’t know how long will be. He’s very fond of plasma ;)). In this case plasma is very delicious cookie. But what’s actually plasma?

Over 15 billion years ago our Universe was downloadsqueezed into an extremely small ball, that was unstable and exploded violently. This was the most gigantic explosion of all time. This description of the early Universe is known today as the ‘Big Bang” model. The matter which composed the Universe was so hot that everything was in the form of plasma. Thus, in the very beginning, plasma was the first state of matter. The fragments of this explosion became the stars of our Universe, including our own Sun. During the expansion of our Universe, the matter cooled down and thus some of the plasma changed into gas, which further cooled down and became transformed into the liquid and eventually the solid states.

At the beginning of civilization, man was familiar with earth and rocks,
water and rain. Naturally, therefore, he identified the solid and the liquid states of matter. Thus we refer today to the solid and the liquid as the first and second phases of matter. A few centuries ago scientists realized that a third state of matter existed; this state is gas. The first physical law for gases was discovered by the English physicist Robert Boyle slightly over 300 years ago. The existence of a so-called fourth state of matter— plasma—was realized only about a century ago.

states

How can you explain someone what’s plasma mean in physics, on “funny” way?!

Let’s try to understand the four states of matter by calling upon our imagination. We are witnessing a dance competition. The conductor and the orchestra are ready to begin. The participants are well organized in pairs in a nice symmetrical way. This first phase is our solid the competition has not yet begun and the atmosphere is cold.As the music begins and the pairs perform their first dance, a slow, we enter into our second phase—the liquid; the temperature is low as they dance to the soft music. The music picks up tempo. The dancers are doing the rock and roll and we enter the third phase—the gas; the temperature is getting warmer. Now the music blares as the pop tunes begin. The girls leave their partners and everyone is jumping and dancing by himself or herself. This is the last phase—the plasma; the temperature is very hot and everyone is jumping around all over the place. This example allows us to make an analogy in which the conductor is the physicist in the laboratory; the music is the ‘heat’ which changes the phases from solid, to liquid, to gas to plasma; and our dancers are the different particles of matter. The pair represent an atom (or molecule) which is the basic unit composing solids, liquids and gases. The girls represent electrons while their partners symbolize ions.

Adding enough energy to any material, we can eventually produce a gas of electrons and ions. This last gas of electrons and ions is called a plasma. The biggest problem in plasma physics is – how to make stabile plasma. 

Setting our imagination in full gear, let’s visit a big playground with
thousands of kindergarten children at play; running around clamorously, playing with different balls and colliding with one another. Picture some of them wandering off on their own without supervision. See the small feet outrunning the bigger and slower-moving ones of their supervisors. Hear some shouting and others laughing or crying. What a tumultuous situation this is indeed. Yet, unbelievably, occasionally, under very strict supervision, this big chaos can become organized in such a way that all the children are playing the same game. They can all be lined up in an orderly manner, listening to their teachers’ instructions. But do you believe that children, in general, can listen or play the same game for a very long time? Of course this is very doubtful. The bedlam is bound to start all over again and the nice collective behavior of the children will “explode” at any moment to a chaotic motion. Does controlling several thousands of kindergarten children in a big playground, with very nice and beautiful surroundings, appear to be a great task?plasma
But the physicist, in his laboratory, trying to contain and control millions of millions of millions of charged particles, with very strong interactions between them, inside a small vessel, is faced with a much greater task. But if he wants to achieve a hot and lasting plasma necessary to solve the energy problem, then this is what he has to cope with daily in his laboratory. Charged particles, like the electrons and the nuclei in the plasma, have difficulty in crossing the lines of force of the magnetic field. Therefore a plasma can be confined by different magnetic field configurations. These magnetic fields keep the plasma inside a “bottle” so that the electrons and the maxresdefaultions do not touch the walls. This is the principle of the magnetic confinement scheme and the device that confines the plasma is called a “magnetic bottle”. The term magnetic bottle was coined in the 1950s by Professor Edward Teller, one of the pioneers of thermonuclear fusion physics. The motion of the particles in a plasma exerts a pressure in a similar way to the pressure of a gas. The thermal pressure in the plasma is due to the particle motion. For higher temperatures, the motion is more vigorous, causing a higher pressure. The number of plasma particles is also a factor in determining the pressure; for larger densities one has higher pressures. Usually, the plasma pressure, like the pressure of a gas, causes the plasma to expand. The plasma can be confined and not allowed to expand into the wall by a magnetic field…..pl

 

I tried to discover, in the rumor of waves, words that other could not hear, and I pricked up my ears to listen to the revelation of their harmony…

wavesThe ocean never seems to sit still. Its waves rise and fall.On beaches they push forward and fall back. But what makes ocean water into waves?
Most waves are created by the wind. The wind blows along the surface of the water and forces waves in the same direction. The top of a wave is called the “crest,” and the lowest part in between the crests is known as the “trough.” When waves roll through the open ocean, they’re called “swell.” As they reach the shore, their crests get higher and closer together and finally topple over. Then they’re called “breakers” or “surf.” A gentle wind makes long waves that don’t rise very high. But stronger winds push harder on the water and create taller waves. Big storms mean strong winds, and that means huge, powerful waves. Major ocean storms, called “hurricanes” or “typhoons,” can cause enormous waves. Some are so big they can smash oceanside houses into pieces or tip over ships that get in their way. During violent storms waves have been known to reach to the tops of lighthouses and to toss boats completely out of the water. The most destructive waves are tsunamis, but they’re quite different from other waves. Tsunamis (from the Japanese for “harbor wave) also wrongly called “tidal waves”,aren’t caused by tides or by the wind. These huge waves are created by underwater earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. tsunami-volcanoA tsunami is a large destructive wave created by the shock from an earthquake or volcanic eruption. The impact of a meteorite could also create a tsunami. Tsunamis travel fast and have the force to destroy entire coastal communities within moments.
A tsunami can travel at speeds of 450 miles per hour or more (as fast as a jet plane) and packs tremendous force. As the tsunami approaches land, it grows larger. It continues to travel until its energy is completely used up. All low-lying coastal areas are vulnerable to a tsunami disaster. In December 2004 an earthquake caused a major tsunami in the Indian Ocean. The earthquake struck off the coast of Indonesia. Two hours later, waves as high as 30 feet hit coastal areas some 750 miles away. The tsunami killed more than 200,000 people….

tsunami

Where does the rainbow end, in your soul or on the horizon?!

If you’ve ever looked at a rainbow and wondered how all those bright
colors got in the sky, you’re not alone.
img_3097The ancient Greeks thought these arcs of color were signs from the gods to warn people that terrible wars or storms were going to happen. The Norse people believed a rainbow was a bridge the gods used to walk down from the sky to the Earth. Other legends said there was a pot of gold waiting at the end of a rainbow. But as beautiful as rainbows are, they aren’t magic. And they aren’t solid enough to walk on. In fact, a rainbow is just colored light. The seven colors are always the same and appear in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo (a very deep blue), and violet. The name “Roy G. Biv” helps you remember the first letters and the order of the colors.
Rainbows often appear after or at the end of a storm, when the Sun is shining again but there is still some rain in the air. img_3040The sunlight looks white, but all seven rainbow colors are mixed together in it. So when a beam of sunlight passes through raindrops, it’s broken into the seven different colors. But you don’t have to wait for rain to see rainbows. You can make your own rainbow.
Place the glass of water in direct sunlight and then submerge a small mirror halfway in the water. Half of the mirror should be below the water line and half above the water line. Tilt and rotate the mirror until you catch the sunlight, which will then be refracted through the water to create the rainbow colors.

img_3050

You’ve got an instant rainbow!

The game of the nature

The mysterious moving stones of the packed-mud desert of Death Valley have been a center of scientific controversy for decades. Rocks weighing up to hundreds of pounds
have been known to move up to hundreds of yards at a time. Some scientists have proposed that a combination of strong winds and surface ice account for these movements.
However, this theory does not explain evidence of
different rocks starting side by side and moving at different rates and in disparate directions.
Moreover, the physics calculations do not fully support this theory as wind speeds of hundreds of miles per hour would be needed to move some of the stones.

When a thick lava flow cools, it contracts vertically
but cracks perpendicular to its directional flow with remarkable geometric regularity – in most cases forming a regular grid of remarkable hexagonal extrusions
that almost appear to be made by man.
One of the most famous such examples is the Giant’s Causeway on the coast of Ireland (shown above), though the largest and most widely recognized would be Devil’s Tower in Wyoming.

Basalt also forms different but equally fascinating ways when eruptions are exposed to air or water.Red tides are also known as algal blooms – sudden influxes of massive amounts of colored single-cell algae that can convert entire areas of an ocean or beach into a blood red color. While some of these can be relatively harmless, others can be harbingers of deadly toxins that cause the deaths of fish, birds and marine mammals. In some cases, even humans have been harmed by red tides though no human exposure are known to have been fatal. While they can be fatal,the constituent phytoplankton in ride tides are not harmful in small numbers.

While many see these apparently perfect ice circles
as worthy of conspiracy theorizing, scientists generally accept that they are formed by eddies in the water that spin a sizable piece of ice in a circular motion. As a result of this rotation, other pieces of ice and flotsam wear relatively evenly at the edges of the ice until it slowly forms into an essentially ideal circle. Ice circles have been seen with diameters of over 500 feet and can also at times be found in clusters and groups of different sizes as shown above.

True to their ominous appearance, mammatus clouds are often harbingers of a coming storm or other extreme weather system. Typically composed primarily of ice,
they can extend for hundreds of miles in each direction
and individual formations can remain visibly static
for ten to fifteen minutes at a time. While they may appear foreboding they are merely the messengers – appearing around, before or even after severe weather.

A circumhorizontal fire rainbow arc occurs at a rare confluence of right time and right place for the sun and certain clouds. Crystals within the clouds refract light into the various visible waves of the spectrum but only if they are arrayed correctly relative to the ground below.
Due to the rarity with which all of these events happen in conjunction with one another, there are relatively few remarkable photos of this phenomena.

Ever wonder the truth about UFOs?
Avoided by traditional pilots but loved by sailplane aviators, lenticular clouds are masses of cloud with strong internal uplift that can drive a motorless flyer to high elevations. Their shape is quite often mistaken for a mysterious flying object or the artificial cover for one. Generally, lenticular clouds are formed as wind speeds up while moving around a large land object such as a mountain.

Like light pillars, sundogs are the product of light passing through crystals. The particular shape and orientation of the crystals can have a drastic visual impact for the viewer, producing a longer tail and changing the range of colors one sees. The relative height of the sun in the sky
shifts the distance the sundogs appear to be on either side of the sun. Varying climactic conditions on other planets in our solar system produce halos with up to four sundogs from those planets’ perspectives. Sundogs have been speculated about and discussed since ancient times and written records describing the various attributes of our sun date back the Egyptians and Greeks.

This last phenomena is something most people have seen before – beautiful orange moon hanging low in the sky.
But what causes this phenomena – and, for that matter, does the moon have a color at all? When the moon appears lower on the horizon, rays of light bouncing off it
have to pass through a great deal more of our atmosphere which slowly strips away everything but yellows, oranges and reds.The bottommost image above is true to the hues of the moon but has enhanced colors to more clearly show the differences in shade that illustrate the mixed topography and minerology that tell the story of the moon’s surface.
Looking at the colors in combination with the craters one can start to trace the history of impacts and consequent material movements across the face of our mysterious  Moon.

 

 

From Cern wit love

Make your own Higgs Boson pizza

Ingredients:
Pizza base
(you can make your own with the suggested recipe below, or buy one ready-made)
2 ½ cups bread flour
A packet of active dry yeast
1 tspn white sugar
2 tbsn olive oil
1 tspn salt
1 cup warm water

For the vegetarian pizza toppings
Cheese
Two asparagus sprouts
Some artichokes (at least 8 slices)
Slices of red and green peppers
A single cherry tomato

2

 

A two asparagus (proton-proton) collision produces a juicy Higgs boson (cherry tomato) decaying into four high-energy (charged) peppers producing a tasty signal in the artichoke (muon) chambers and a lot of charged (red and green peppers) particles that are detected in the pizza (detector) entirely covered with mozzarella sensors.

 

 

For the meat pizza toppings
Cheese
Two asparagus sprouts
Slices of ham
Black olives
A few slices of salami
A single slice of chorizo1

A two asparagus (proton-proton) collision produces a spicy Higgs boson (chorizo) decaying into two high-energy salami (photon) clusters and a lot of charged (sliced ham) and neutral (olive) particles that are detected in the pizza (detector) entirely covered with mozzarella sensors.

buon appetito!

 

 

You cannot depend on your eyes when your imagination is out of focus

30It was perhaps one of the greatest discoveries in human history, when Maxwell suddenly realized that everything from the brilliance of the sunrise, the blaze of the setting sun, the dazzling colors of the rainbow, and the firmament of stars in the heavens could be described by the waves he was scribbling on a sheet of paper. The secret of light was finally revealed.

Do not look at mirage and look inside mirror…..28

A familiar example of the index of refraction is a mirage. If you are driving on a hot day and look straight toward the horizon, the road may seem to be shimmering, creating the illusion of a glistening lake. In the desert one can sometimes see the outlines of distant cities and mountains on the horizon. This is because hot air rising from the pavement or desert has a lower density than normal air, and hence a lower index of refraction than the surrounding, colder air, and therefore light from distant objects can be refracted off the pavement into your eye, giving you the illusion that you are seeing distant objects. Usually, the index of refraction is a constant. A narrow beam of light is bent when it enters glass and then keeps going in a straight line.